naDheraya Glossary

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Gemology Glossary - Gemological Institute of muCambodia Glossary. NaDheraya Glossary. Gemstone Glossary

Abalone maparera

chitsvuku Baroque maparera zvinoberekwa ane dzinodyiwa univalue mollusk rine goko nzeve-zvakaumbwa inoremekedzwa nokuda kwayo siyana mai-of-neparera lining. Aya anowanikwa mune America, New Zealand uye mvura Japanese. Kashoma spheroid, vari kazhinji flattened uye nzeve kana tooth- shaped

tora

kukwidza (semuenzaniso, imwe pfuma) kana kutora kana kuwana simba kubva vanopenya simba (semuenzaniso, chiedza)

Absorção de Água chakarondedzera

muenzaniso kwasviba kutwasuka mitsetse, nezvisungo, kana nzvimbo (yakafara Absorção de Água), vaona kana chiedza yave ichiparadzirwa kana akaratidza kubva gemstone akaparadzirwa mariri spectral zvinoriumba uye akaongorora kushandisa zviridzwa akadai ane spectroscope.

Adamantine

ona kubwinya

Adularescence

ari maitiro rinokwanisa kucheneruka-chena kana samafuta Sheen (Schiller) moonstone

Allochromatic

kana kuchinja chinhu aripo chete sechinhu chiduku tsvina iri chiwanikwa zvinhu, mashoko acho allochromatic (allo = vamwe; chroma = ruvara)

Alluvium

mukuru izwi inowanzoshandiswa nokuda deposits nedombo nemarara (alluvial deposits) zvange yaitakurwa inotubuka uye vakaisa pasi rukova, rwizi, mafashamo pachena kana gungwa mibhedha.

Amorphous

ona asiri crystalline

Anisotropic

ona nemhosva mbiri refractive

Archimedes musimboti

Archimedes pfungwa inoti kana munhu muviri achinyatsotaurira imvura, ipapo kumusoro chebasa emura pamusoro muviri akaenzana kurema mushonga misha. (The Kutsunga dzakananga giravhiti kuburikidza hydrostatic yairema nzira hwakavakirwa nheyo iyi)

chakagadzirwa nematombo

crystals murume-akaita kuti vane rwokuzvarwa ishamwari (semuenzaniso, nedhaimani simulants: strontium titanate uye YAG)

chakagadzirwa kurapwa

ari enhancement pakati nezve fuma nokuda kudziyisa, staining, bemhapemha, impregnation, irradiation kana Laser-Drilling

vakaungana matombo anokosha

chero chiwanikwa rinoumbwa zviviri kana kupfuura zvikamu zvakange cemented kana fused pamwe chete kuumba ibwe chete

Asterism

asterism chinoratidza kushanda, kazhinji vana kana matanhatu rayed, kubva dzichienderana fibers kana fibrous in ari ibwe iyo rangoitika the cabochon pamwe inclusions akatarisa newokuti bhanhire ndege

Aventurescence

simba spangled unomuremekedza chiedza kubva pamahwendefa kana flakes vorumwe chicherwa kwaisanganisira ari ibwe (semuenzaniso, sezvinoonekwa aventurine girazi, aventurine Goldstone, aventurine feldspar (sunstone))

Akabatana pamusoro symmetry

mumwe dzekuvamba symmetry, ane akabatana ane symmetry chinhu zvokufungidzirwa mutsetse kuburikidza musimboti sekristaro, iyo sekristaro inogona zvayaitenderera paguyo kuitira kupa zvakafanana chitarisiko 2, 3, 4 kana 6 nguva mune imwe yadzo zvakakwana (kureva , yakafanana chiso chatinokoshesa yakafanana chinzvimbo, kupfuura kamwe ari rotation rakazara)

Baroque maparera

zita rinoshandiswa maparera kuarwisa uye cultured, mhoni kana chikofu,

izvo vasingapindiwo chimiro

Basalt

basalt, rakajairika extrusive igneous dombo, ari murima, akanaka-grained dombo vanotova anoumbwa murima feldspar uye pyroxene (kana pasina olivine). Kune akawanda akasiyana-siyana ayo Classified zvichienderana pamusoro kusiyana magadzirirwo, mamiriro uye chicherwa kugutsikana

Biaxial mabwe

vari orthorhombic, monoclinic uye triclinic gadziriro kune zvitatu nekristaro nematemo siyana paurefu. Double refraction zvichavapo dzakawanda mirayiridzo, asi kuchava nevaviri optic namasanhu (zvakataurwa chete refraction) kuti vakasiyana zvevhiki neimwe yoga chiwanikwa marudzi. zvicherwa Kuva izvi nehurongwa vanozivikanwa se biaxial. (Munguva orthorhombic epasi optic namasanhu vanoitirwawo tichingoda kuti 'c' (musimboti wehunyambiri akabatana), apo ari monoclinic uye triclinic hapana zvakananga noukama sekristaro namasanhu.)

Birefringence

(Uyewo vachinzi kaviri refraction / DR) birefringence ndiyo uwandu kaviri refraction ane anisotropic gemstone akaratidza sezvo kusiyana refractive indices panguva kunonyanyisa kuparadzana

Biwa maparera

non-nucleated cultured maparera (kazhinji denderedzwa kana Baroque muna chimiro muJapan) farmed kumativi kweLake Biwa muJapan. The maparera vari dzabudapo makuru yakachena mvura mussels kuburikidza kuisa zviduku zvimedu jasi mukati muviri mussel

mhosva

mukuru rokureva chikanganiso zvinochinja pose ari chiwanikwa. A chakaremara inowanzopiwa kunokonzerwa nezviito kwevanhu, kana apo chiwanikwa ari kucheka kana apo iri dzinopfekwa mu zvishongo. Anokwenya, makomba, uye abrasions ndivo mhando dzakawanda zvinowanzovapo mhosva

mhoni maparera

maparera izvo akafukidzwa chete nacreous rukoko iyo akakura pamusoro ane irritant yepakutanga neVadzidzi mollusk goko rimwe divi. Kana maparera vakadaro zvikaramba, nzvimbo yakanga neVadzidzi goko ndiko akaberekera pamusoro nacre. Naizvozvo uyu akaberekera divi inowanzopiwa ndokudzora kure uye chakavanzika nokuda pakuvira

dzakapinza

dzakapinza ndiyo yose kwazvo nechomukati yairatidza chiedza kuti vakadzokera ziso kubva gemstone. Nerumwe rinogona kutsanangurwa se Nokupenya (upenyu) ane gemstone sezvo pakutsvaga uwandu chiedza kwakaratidza kudzokera ziso kubva seri inobudisawo ibwe

Brittleness

brittleness kunorondedzerwa se kusimba ari gemstone iyo pasinei kwayo zvakaoma, anoita kuti kubatwa nokutyora, kukuvara (semuenzaniso, kupisa kubatwa zircon)

Cat ziso

ona chatoyancy

Nzvimbo symmetry

mumwe dzekuvamba symmetry, muzinda symmetry aripo apo ose chiso akakwana sekristaro akasiyana zvachose pakatarisana yakafanana chiso panorumwe rutivi sekristaro (kureva, chiso ose ane mumwe chiso kuti zvakafanana, pakatarisana uye yakafanana)

Chatoyancy

kuratidzwa maturo kubva nezvatinovavarira kufanana fibrous inclusions kana (ziso katsi wacho) in. The chete zvitsidzo chiedza rinowanika pana dzinoita kuti vatungamirire inclusions zvakarurama uye inoonekwa pasi rimwe panhongonya chiedza panobva nematombo kuti Warigirwa the cabochon

Chelsea ruvara rater

nhumbi zvinosanganisira mubatanidzwa filters, akanyatsoiswa kuvakwa kuti zvinoita mbiri chete yakamanikana zvikamu chakarondedzera kuti vaonekwe kuburikidza nawo: (pedyo 690nm) uye yakadzika tsvuku tsvuku dzakaita munyoro (pedyo 570nm). Hazvina zvaibatsira zvinoratidza kuvapo Chrome kana cobalt dzimwe anokosha, nokuti vasabatwa pamusoro (Chrome) dhayi mabwe uye kupatsanura vamwe chiwanikwa zvokuvakisa ravaigona KUJEKA. Chiyeuchidzo: Shandisa sezvo yambiro chiratidzo chete. Zvinoratidza Vanovimba nemimwe miedzo

Chromophore

(Coloring mumiririri). Chanza Morekuru kuti ndiye anokonzera remubatanidzwa kuti ruvara. Hazvina aripo sechinhu chinokosha constituent muna makemikari anoumba mune idiochromatic matombo kana somunhu accidentai kumwedzi vari allochromatic mabwe

kutsanangurika

izwi rinoshandiswa kutsanangura hama rusununguko kubva internai chero kuremara kana irregularity (inclusions) ari chiwanikwa. Tsanangudzo anogona risanganisire pamusoro Kukanganisika (nemavara) apo kufunga Kujeka mugiredhi pabwe

Color zvisungo

nehasha nerokuti zvisungo ruvara kuonekwa pamusoro pemvura crystals kana internai hurongwa nematombo (anoratidza kukura zvikamu zvinokonzerwa kusiyana zviripo makemikari, mvura, tembiricha, kumanikidza uye zvimwewo)

Color mu anokosha

munhu chinooneka maonero pamusoro vomumatunhu umo chiedza chena inogona kuparadzaniswa (mutsvuku, orenji, yero, mutema, nezvakarukwa zvitema, Violet) uyewo kutekenyedzwa ruvara iyo isina kuwanikwa kwezuva chakarondedzera. Ruvara kunorondedzerwa Hue, saturation uye matauriro. The muviri Ruvara ane gemstone rinobva chiedza icho chinoonekwa uyewo kuva kuchikonzerwa Absorção de Água dzimwe wavelengths chiedza zvinooneka. Color inogona kukonzerwa akapararira chipingaidzo chiedza uye fluorescence

Color zoning

ruvara zoning anovandudza munguva kukura sekristaro nokuda dzisingapindirani kuwanda tsvina. Misiyano iri ruvara (zvisungo kana dzinodengenyeka) vari anowanzoitwa kuonekwa kutevera huripo sekristaro zviso

makara zvinhu

Kusarudza Absorção de Água chiedza nokuda pamberi yokuchinja zvinhu (Chrome, cobalt, mhangura, vanadium, manganese, simbi, nickel, titanium) muna idiochromatic uye allochromatic mabwe

tsindirana

chiine ane zvakafanana zvinorehwa muhombe uye rinoshandiswa zvikuru apo crystals havaratidzi chiratidzo STRUCTURAL inoramba (semuenzaniso, fme-grained jadeite nejedhi)

ematongerwo gemstone

ona vakaungana gemstone

conch of maparera

pingi maparera: maparera vakawana kubva conch of kukuru, munhu univalve mollusk akawana kure kumahombekombe Florida, Gulf California uye Mexico. maparera izvi vanowanzoteerera Pink (blue orenji kana chichena) ruvara uye vanoonekwa nokushayikwa nacreous bemhapemha

Conchoidal

ona kutsemuka

Ndionei tamorphic

ari recrystallization pamusoro chicherwa zviri pre-yaivapo matombo kana pedyo kuonana mapazi nokuda pamberi magmas

Contact mapatya

mhando nekristaro twinning umo vanhu vari kuonana pamwe nevakawanda ndege (mapatya ndege). The zvikamu zviviri nekristaro kwakadaro saka chokuita kuti kana mutezo mumwe zvayaitenderera paguyo kuburikidza 180 ° (nehafu dzokai) nezvekufa akabatana (mapatya akabatana) ipapo nebhande maviri kwaizoita kuti chimiro wacho sekristaro. The kuonana mapatya aripo nenzira mbiri: kuroorwa kuonana mapatya-uko 2 nebhande ane sekristaro zviri nekwekupedzesera kuitira kuti kana munhu hafu iri zvayaitenderera paguyo 180 ° pamusoro ndege pamusoro kubatana, chimiro chakaipa rekristaro inotengwa; kudzokororwa, polysynthetic kana lammelar mapatya-mhando nekristaro twinning panhamba dzakatevedzana kuonana mapatya kazhinji mutete chaizvo matete. Aya akarongwa pakatarisana wezwi vavo pakarepo vavakidzani (semuenzaniso, zvinowanikwa corundum uye feldspar). Onawo interpenetrant mapatya

Critical angled

pakona yose kuitika apo kachiedza chiedza riri kufamba kubva optically denser kuti vashoma svikiro iri refracted pana 90 ° kune chakaipa (kureva, izvozvo skims pose nhau mbiri vaaisangana). Cherechedza: kuzombotaurazve kuwedzera pamusoro angled iyi kuitika zvaizoita kuti refracted ranzi kudzoka kupinda svikiro yepakutanga kwaaizovapo kuteerera mitemo Kufungisisa (kureva, izvozvo zvaizomutsa zvachose nechomukati hwairatidza.)

Cryptocrystalline

(Crypto = zvakavanzika). Rinoshandiswa kurondedzera zvinhu zvinosanganisira isingaverengeki uwandu crystals duku kazhinji dzesub-roga pokubatana hworugare guru. The Sub-roga nekristaro uwandu hwezvinhu zvose zvabatanidzwa. kunogona kuonekwa amorphous kune kusimira ziso

njenjere

nekrisitaro * ane mishonga yakafanana hwakasimba ane akarayira internai mabhomba marongerwo uye zvokunze chimiro rakatenderedzwa symmetrically kurongwa ndege (sandara) zviso

Crystal chimiro

mumwe sekristaro chimiro chinosanganisira ail avo zviso ayo saizvozvowo chokuita crystallographic matemo (semuenzaniso, Pyramid, prism, pinacoid, ainge akamonererwa)

Crystal tsika

ari sekristaro maumbirwo (chimiro, uye ndinoiitawo pose unhu) umo zvicherwa kazhinji kuitika vanonzi yavo sekristaro tsika

Crystal inclusions

mechanical inclusions dzinozivikanwa avo vane nekaupenyu chisina kutsetseka makona uye nekaupenyu ngaatarire kumicheto. Gogonera micheto uye zvishoma wakatenderedzwa nezvimiro vari akasangana nokuda reabsorption pakati inclusions. (Mechanical inclusions kazhinji inoratidza yokuyamura kundorwa hondo kumashure apo kuonekwa pasi darkfield jekeso. Vanogona kuongororwa nokushandisa vayambuka polars.)

Crystal symmetry

nekristaro symmetry zvinoreva yakadzikama yomufananidzo mabhomba mamiriro. Ndiyo chaiyo kubereka (dzokorora chitarisiko) kwekristaro zviso zvakafanana (micheto pamakona) kuti anoratidza akarayira womukati urongwa nefuma.

Crystalline

crystalline acho tsanangudzo ndiye chicherwa yakasimba vane ions, maatomu kana mamorekuru yakarongwa nenzira yakarongeka. In tsika, izwi inowanzoshandiswa kutsanangura zvinhu aine nguva dzose marongerwo uye achitaura nzvimbo asi hakusi zvekunze geometric chimiro

Crystallographic namasanhu

Ndiwo zvekufungidzira akarongwa nokusingagumi urefu kumhanya kuburikidza

yakanaka rekristaro mune dzimwe nhungamiro chaiwo kana toreva symmetry ari sekristaro. Ivo piringisha ari nechepakati sekristaro pane imwe nguva inonzi mavambo. (Ndivo nekurukurirano bhuku iyo inogona akayera hama marefu uye kwakarerekera zviso siyana.)

Cultured maparera

cultured maparera vari pearly idzodzo zvachose kana zvishoma kunokonzerwa

nokuda Kupindira madiro kwevanhu kupinda mukati inobereka mollusks. Izvi zvinoshanda cultured maparera kana chete kana pasina munhu neerekitironi

chikofu maparera

mumwe parera iyo akaumba mukati muviri parera mollusk uye spheroid mu chimiro

Dendritic usanganidzo

muti-kufanana kana chikwindi-kufanana mitswi zvekupfakira (apo inclusions dzakasiyana zvinhu anogona fil kuregawo -. yemanyorero simbi oxide)

Divitrify

kuti tirasikirwe rinoonekera kubwinya uye transluceny. (Kana magirazi chigadzirwa inonzi Meta nejedhi - iri kukura incipient crystallization)

Dichroscope

ari dichroscope ari mudziyo runovabvumira ari pleochroic migumisiro chiwanikwa zvicherwa kuonekwa, mbiri mavara kana noruvara noruvara panguva

Diffraction

ari diffraction chiedza chiri swa chimiro kukanganiswa chiedza muna unomedurirwa chiedza chena kumusoro (paradzanisa) kupinda kwayo chinoumba mavara sechiedza ichipfuura duku aperture kana apo chiedza mafungu zvakaitika chinhu kumucheto pakati zvakasiyana refracting zvinhu (semuenzaniso, mutambo mavara kuonekwa rinokosha hiakindi)

vakapararira

vakapararira ndiye kuparadzana (hunoparara) chiedza chena kupinda spectral mavara kubudikidza refraction (the vachikotama nechiedza) sezvo chiedza ichipfuura mbiri hukawanika vafarire. In anokosha chinowanzoonekwa vachinzi 'moto'

Double refractive

anisotropic - zvicherwa nedzokunze achitaura Optical zvivako (semuenzaniso, matombo ari tetragonal, hexagonal trigonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic uye triclinic nehurongwa)

remagetsi chakarondedzera

shoko rakashandiswa yose siyana wavelengths ose vanopenya simba kubva wakarebesa redhiyo mafungu kuburikidza zvikuru pfupi yepasi pose wavelengths

Zvinhu symmetry

pezvokuvamba symmetry ndiyo tsika classifi-dzo Nekuti vanomwe sekristaro hurongwa. Ndivo mano tikwanise vaparadzane uye kutsanangura-siyana nekristaro chimiro. Vanosanganisira ndege pamusoro symmetry, ane akabatana pamusoro symmetry uye muzinda symmetry (ona tsanangudzo pasi nomumwe hwesaruro)

Eluvium

eluvial deposits ine dombo nemarara (mavhu) iro rave kwakakanganisa (weathered panze) kubva kuhondo dombo uye unorambira situ (panzvimbo) pasina uchishushikana chokufambisa munzizi

Emit

kupa kure kana kunze (semuenzaniso, chiedza)

Enantiomorphism

ari samolecular maumbirwo Goldstone izvo kunoita kuti tibvunze kuruboshwe uye rworudyi zononoka kukura Goldstone, uye kuti ayo dzeraundi polarization. (Note: The kupinda muzvikoro zviri auxillary zviso duku zviri kakawanda kuoneka pazuva zvokunze chimiro rubatsiro kuziva kuruboshwe kana kurudyi zurdo pamusoro sekristaro)

Enhancement

ona chakagadzirwa kurapwa

Epigenetic inclusions

kuposita wepanguva inclusions. Avo kwakaitika pashure paumbwe wehondo sekristaro. Izvi zvinosanganisira-siyana Kunetsana uye chicherwa inclusions inoumbwa exsolution (semuenzaniso, rutile sirika muna corundum); tisingatauri mafuta / opticon, nezvimwewo, vakasara vari kutsemuka akazadzwa anokosha.

Exsolution inclusions

ona exsolved

Exsolved

ari unmixing zvicherwa. Vamwe yegwara zvicherwa vanoumba chikukutu kupedza pane mukuru tembiricha kuva kusagadzikana uchipiwa tembiricha. Kana izvi atonhodze zvishoma nezvishoma imwe chicherwa vangamanikidzwa panze apo hondo mamiriro inotonhodza uye zvibvumirano, chaizvoizvo kudzvinya tsvina munzvimbo shama Spaces kwavakanga crystallize (semuenzaniso, tsono rutile (sirika) mu corundum)

kutsakatika

kutsakatika ndiyo kusavapo chiedza achidzokera ziso. Izvi zvinokonzera ibwe kuoneka rima uye musingashayiwi billiance

zvinogonekwa mazita

faceted anokosha vane korona (pamusoro mugove pamusoro pebhandi), tafura (muzinda zvinogonekwa korona), bhanhire (chikamu pamusoro ibwe nepfungwa mukomberedzo kana muganhu zvokunze), netende (pazasi chikamu pazasi bhanhire ). zvimwe zvose zvabatanidzwa dzingasiyana-siyana avo kukura, maitikiro kana kunyange kuvapo zvichienderana nokuveza Style kushandiswa. Somuenzaniso, mune mwero danho-cheka (neemaradhi vakatongoparadzwa) Matombo culet (diki zvinogonekwa mujinga metende) kunotsiviwa ne keel mutsetse (refu mutsetse anomuitira pamwe nechepakati nechepasi metende)

nhema cleavage

ona okuonekana

munhenga usanganidzo

ndege pamusoro miniti in izvo anowanzoita somunhu vazhinji yakanaka tsvimbo-kufanana zvikamu intercommunicating migero (kazhinji mvura izere).

Fibrous

zita rakapiwa zvinhu apo constituent crystals vari tsono-zvakaumbwa (semuenzaniso, asbestos, nephrite nejedhi)

fingapurindi inclusions

izvi zvinogona zvingazivikanwa sezvo minhenga kuporeswa uye panofanira interconnecting network emura yakazara migero uye mumate chakatodzana fingapurindi. Kazhinji mugumisiro chicherwa zvinogadzirisa zvishoma nezvishoma inonzwika apo mugomba pre-yaivapo mitswi munzvimbo kare kuumbwa rekristaro, uye achiporesa kutsemuka uku. Rimwe ezvinhu umo zvakadaro zvinhu zvinogona kuitika munguva kupisa kupisa kurapwa. Aparecen nevakawanda aibata korari

pedza

pedza zvinoreva faceting kunaka chiwanikwa uye haanzverwi ukuru chipenye, kakawanda, uye flatness neimwe chinhu

Fluorescence

fluorescence ndiye anobuda chiedza kuonekwa matombo anokosha kuti vakambonzwa zvinoonekwa kana asingaoneki radiations pamusoro pfupi wavelength (yepamusoro simba)

kutsemuka

kutsemuka chinhu mugari Chip kana yokumbozorora ibwe

chiwanikwa

ibwe rinokosha chero mhando, akagura uye yakabwinyiswa nokuda chishongo (parera chinhu chikuru anosiiwa okupedzisira chinodiwa). A chiwanikwa kuburikidza tsanangudzo ndiwo ane runako, mukurumari uye husiri nyore kuwana

girazi

rokuti girazi rinoshandisirwa zvinhu izvo zvakasikwa utsotso uye kukurumidza kutonhora chicherwa zvinhu, zvichiguma nokuumbwa amorphous zvinhu. Glass inogona chakagadzirwa (manmade, dzimwe nguva anonzi namatidza) kana kupfuura kashoma, dzinongoitika semuna, obsidian (kuputika girazi), tektites (vakafunga kuti meteoric achitevedzera zvigadzirwa)

girenayiti

girenayiti ari chiedza yechitema, zvinonyadzisa-grained intrusive igneous dombo anoumbwa akawanda Goldstone, feldspar uye Mika

Growth banding

chichiwedzera zvasviba zvisungo zviri kururamisa mitsetse panguva dzinoita kuti vanotevera STRUCTURAL yomufananidzo chicherwa

tsika

ari maitiro chimiro umo chicherwa anowanzodanwa kunoitika. Tsika kwete chete zvinosanganisira zvokunze chimiro anowanzonzi vakagamuchirwa nokuda chicherwa asiwo kwese pamusoro zvinokonzerwa uyewo

Hackly

ona kutsemuka

denderedzwa rechiedza usanganidzo

nekristaro usanganidzo takapoteredzwa kunetseka mitswi (s). Izvi zvinogona kutarira sezvinoita shavishavi nemapapiro maviri zvinobva kuna zvaisanganisira nekristaro (ndiro kazhinji zircon)

neukukutu

neukukutu isimba ane zvicherwa ane kudzivisa scratching (abrasion). Onawo neEshtemo kuti pakafunuka

kurapa makatsemuka

akaporesa makatsemuka (makatsemuka kana cleavages) uko mvura akapinda rotonhorera uye sekristaro akakura shure pamwe chete. Kazhinji zvikamu Urume vakavharirwa mukati in uye migero kukonzera feathery kana fingapurindi-kufanana maitiro (dzimwe nguva simbi-yakasvibiswa)

Hue

Hue anoreva zita ruvara pachayo; yakachena spectral nezvekufadza rutsvuku, orenji, yero, mutema, nezvakarukwa zvitema, Violet uye Misiyano izvi. Hue rinotaurawo kuti kutekenyedzwa ruvara (pakati tsvuku uye Violet), izvo haiwaniki zuva chakarondedzera

Hydrothermal

matombo vakaisa pasi, kazhinji okupedzisira zvokukura igneous nenzvimbo kubva magma akapfuma nemvura nezvimwe kugadzikana zvinhu. The hydrothermal mutsinga pamusoro chicherwa vapfumi machengeterwo Sefa kuburikidza Makwanza uye Kunetsana mune sedimentary matombo uye chimiro rekristaro vakamiswa in padombo

Idiochromatic

kana kuchinja chinhu chiri constituent kunokosha pane chiwanikwa zvokunyama, chiwanikwa zvinhu zviri idiochromatic (idio = kuzvida, chroma = ruvara)

kunyudza sero

duku girazi Sero nokuti ine yakakodzera mvura. Pfungwa shure kushandisa kunyudza Sero kuti refractive indekisi nemvura iri ibwe, nyore zvichava kuona kupinda ibwe. Chero Hauoneki mvura, kunyange mvura, achacheka pamusoro kufungisisa, uye kuti kuona inclusions nyore zvikuru

In situ

zvinhu vasangana pachinzvimbo pakange pakutanga kuumbwa kana rakachengetedzwa anonzi kuwanikwa situ (chaizvoizvo panzvimbo)

usanganidzo

mukuru izwi upi kuremara kana irregularity mukati chiwanikwa. Inclusions inogona kukamurwa mhando nhatu dzakasiyana: zvikukutu-zvose crystalline (semuenzaniso, zircon muna nesafiri) kana asiri crystalline (semuenzaniso, dzinongoitika girazi mu peridot) zvinobvira. In-izvi zvinogona kuumba panguva hondo dzinokosha kukura (chikuru inclusions), kana kuti gare gare (yechipiri inclusions). Chero mhando kuti muzadzwe chero Mubatanidzwa emura, negasi uye kana chikukutu. Vaya vaviri kana kupfuura zvikamu zviri haichazonzi multiphase. Kukura mananara-ruvara zoning uye twinning tiri vaviri mienzaniso kukura mananara

michini

michini nzira pazasi tsvuku uye siyana iyi nemwaranzi chinotanga wavelengths kuti hatichisiri kupfuura 700nm chiedza dzvuku. Michini mwaranzi zvinowanzotarisirwa kuzivikanwa kupisa nekuti anounza kutekenyedzwa netsiye kana chichiruma Darika yedu

chipingaidzo

apo mwaranzi vaviri vaifamba nzira imwe chete, asi kubva danho (danho), wezvikamu kuvhiringidza mumwe kukonzera kana zvachose kutsakatika chiedza kana vakararama-yose mumwe kana kupfuura mavara

chipingaidzo nenhamba

ava Optical Migumisiro kuona apo kaviri refractive zvicherwa vanoonekwa kuburikidza rinofambirana zviso vari convergent danda kubva inobudisa chiedza. Ivo kutenga chinobatsira mashoko pamusoro Optical hunhu ibwe

Interpenetrant mapatya

mhando nekristaro twinning umo vanhu vaviri saka akura pamwe chete kuti kuonekwa kuti rakapinda mumwe nomumwe (kazhinji pave muchinjikwa kana nyeredzi matombo)

Iridescence

iridescence kana kutamba ruvara rinotsanangura ruvara kana munhevedzano mavara hunoberekwa kukanganiswa kana diffraction kana chiedza kunooneka kana kubva matete mafirimu kana kubva yakasiyana maumbirwo anokosha hiakindi

Isomorphous chitsividzo

iye achigamuchira mumwe kwemakemikari chingaita mumwe chete valency iri makemikari anoumba. Izvi zvinoguma rakafara kusiyana mune zvivako zviri nhengo akatevedzana chaiko. Valency: kwemakemikari hunhu zvakafanana uye Ionic nharaunda

Isotropic

ona singly refractive

Keshi cultured maparera

sezvingatarisirwa kuitika non-nucleated Freshwater maparera izvo zvinoumba ari mollusk painenge vakadzokera mvura pashure kubviswa zvibereko vasiri nucleated cultured namaparera. Izvi hazvifaniri kuvhiringidzwa zvomumvura mbeu pearis idzo kazhinji chiduku zvikuru. The Freshwater `keshi 'vari chete inonzi nokuti saizvozvo havasi yakawedzera kubva rakagadzirwa nevanhu neerekitironi. Dzimwe nguva anonzi `seedless 'maparera kuti musiyano nevasiri nucleated. Onawo Biwa maparera

Keshi maparera (marina)

vokuJapan kudanwa mbeu maparera `keshi '(poppies). The Kuwadzana pano riri pakati tuduku kukura mbeu Poppy uye maduku zvikuru sezvingatarisirwa vakaumba maparera

Konoscope

mumwe polariscope yakanyatsoiswa ane zvakasimba convergent izvo izvo zvinobatsira aivabatsira vachiona kukanganiswa nenhamba

Lamellae inclusions

anokonzerwa polysynthetic twinning. Anogona kuonekwa sezvo inopofumadza kana läpinäkyvä hove-mutsetse. Vanogonawo sokuti kusangana dzinoita (semuenzaniso, muna corundum apo mirayiridzo kusangana)

Lateritic wevhu

pasi zvinhu (rinoumbwa dombo nezvimedu uye uswa) iro anonyanya Rinobva yaora basait (yakanaka grained rima kuputika dombo akapfuma vesimbi magnesium, rakazaruka chaizvo zvinokonzerwa kwemakemikari weathering mune inopisa)

Luminescence

mukuru izwi nokuti kupa kure rinooneka kutonhora 'chiedza `achishandisa fuma pamusoro muchiwana dzinorega simba chimiro chimwe. Mazano shanu luminescent mananara ndiwo: chemi-luminescence (mugumisiro kwemakemikari change), tribe-luminescence (hunoberekwa kukweshera), Thermo-luminescence (hunoberekwa Kupisa), photo¬luminescence (nokushanduka zvinoonekwa kana zvisingaonekwi radiations kuvakuru simba / mapfupi wavelength) uye cathodoluminescence (zvawanikwa kubva excitation ane Erekitironi danda ari vacuüm chamber)

kubwinya

kubwinya ndiye uwandu uye unhu chiedza kuti zvinoratidzwa kubva pemvura ibwe. Zvinotevera mazwi anoshandiswa kurondedzera gemstone lusters: esimbi: yakakwirira kubwinya kunoratidzwa opaque esimbi zvicherwa. adamantine: yakakwirira pamusoro reflectivity. vitreous: girazi-kufanana kubwinya zvakafanana vazhinji anokosha. anotsvedzerera anobuda pamiti nemakwenzi: randinenge kubwinya kwakaita Inogadzirwa nemasiridzi anobuda mumiti (nyoro chete pasi VT). waxy: anenge matte pose (dzimwe nguva inonzi richazara). richazara: zvishoma jikichira achitarisa kunokonzerwa kuputsanya chiedza pedyo microscopically mafungu pamusoro. pearly: kubwinya kwakaita parera / mai-of-neparera. silky: fibrous kubwinya kwakaita sirika

Mabe (cultured) maparera

ematongerwo cultured mhoni maparera umo epakutanga neerekitironi chabviswa uye ne imwe bead duku cemented mukati, uye chigamba ainge akamonererwa kuita raundi pamusoro mother- ose-parera glued kuti chawo kufukidza nzvimbo kushayikwa nacre

Magma

wakaumbwa (mvura) dombo

nyore kufurirwa

nyore kufurirwa rinoreva kuva vanokwanisa vari akawedzera kana kuumbwa kurova chete sando kana vachida rollers

Man-yakaitwa

chigadzirwa murume-chinoitirwa tsanangudzo ndomumwe kuti kwave synthesized murabhoritari. (Kuti synthesize ndiko kuisa pamwe chete kana sangana zvinhu ive yakaoma yose). Mugumo zvinogona kuva chakaita zvokugadzirwa gemstone (kureva, munhu ane dzinongoitika ishamwari) kana risiri chairo gemstone (kureva, munhu ane rwokuzvarwa ishamwari)

wandisa

rinoshandiswa kurondedzera zvinhu izvo ane chivakashure internai sechivako sekristaro, asi izvo haaratidzi kwekunze geometric chimiro. Izvi zvinogona rinoumbwa rimwe (semuenzaniso, Goldstone) kana kupfuura nekristaro anokwana zviyero (semuenzaniso, jadeite)

Mettalic

ona kubwinya

Metamict

shoko rakashandiswa zvinhu izvo rwakatambura kuregawo-pasi kubva crystalline kuti pamwe amorphous mamiriro; nevakawanda zvicherwa ane mwaranzi inokuvadza zvinhu (semuenzaniso, vakaderera mhando zircon)

Metamorphic matombo

metamorphic (chaizvoizvo, akashandura chimiro) matombo aumba kubva pre-yaivapo mabwe zvikurukuru nokuita zvinoitwa kufurirwa, kupisa uye / kana kuuyisa itsva makemikoro

Arşive carat (CT)

mumwe arşive carat = mumwe muzvishanu giremu (0.20gr) kana 200 milligrams (MG). A arşive carat ndiyo chairema uremu ail matombo anokosha uye cultured namaparera. Kurema kunoratidzirwa maviri grade akakwirira decimals kazhinji-siyana kunzi 'pfungwa', kureva, 1 arşive carat = 100 pfungwa

maikorosikopu

chinhu Optical Chishandiso zvinosanganisira mubatanidzwa lenses iyo kunobereka makurisa mufananidzo chinhu. Vamwe pevara kukosha pakati magnification: usanganidzo kudzidza (dzinongoitika vs. nevanhu; kwadzinoita inotungamirwa / rekristaro kukura); pose Kuongorora (chatingatevedzera vakatongoparadzwa (symmetry), Polish (zvemupiro inobudisawo, firemarks); vasabatwa pamusoro rinoumba mabwe; kuziva hazvizivi nokurapwa, kuona munjodzi kuna kukuvadza (semuenzaniso, kuvapo kutsemuka uye / kana cleavage); kuona doubling (SR Vs .DR, uyewo zvingaratidza yakawanda birefringence)

chicherwa

mumwe chicherwa riri muropa yokuvamba inorganic fuma ane makemikari anoumba uye mumuviri zvivako zviri kugara mukati yakatetepa mwero. kazhinji mamiriro zvayo crystalline

Monochromatic chiedza

chiedza monochromatic ndiye chiedza mumwe wavelength chete. Mureza tsvuku monochromatic chiedza inoshandiswa Refractometer kuyerwa rinobva yavaibvisa mhute rambi. Izvi chaizvoizvo inoumbwa vaviri akatibvunzisisa munzvimbo dzokuzororera dzaiva anobuda mitsetse, ane mutengo risiri ndiye 589.3nm

Multiphase inclusions

inclusions kuti ingasanganisira mvura uye gasi uye / kana crystals

Nacre

mumwe secretion zvinoberekwa jasi dzimwe mollusks iyo anoumba Iridescent akaturikidzana zvose parera uye mai-of-parera pose mukati mollusk deko. Nacre inoumbwa crystalline carbonate kwesuko uye makemikari zvinhu inonzi conchiolin

Namometers (nm)

Unit yakayerwa nokuda mapfupi wavelengths ari remagetsi chakarondedzera (vanopenya simba). 1 nanometer = 1 millioneth chikamu millimeter (1 / 1,000,000 nm) semuenzaniso, chiedza chinoonekwa inowira pakati 700nm (tsvuku) uye 400nm (Violet)

Native vakatongoparadzwa

Shoko rakashandiswa nokuda manyorerwe vakatongoparadzwa vakasarudzwa nokuda kunonyanyisa uremu chengetedzo. Izvi zvakadzama akavezwa vane setende makuru kazhinji zvinoda

recutting kusvika rakakwanira nani

Negative njenjere

in mukati chiwanikwa ane crystalline chimiro. in izvi vakasikwa apo dzimwe nzvimbo akakura ari nokukurumidza zvikuru kudarika dzimwe nzvimbo, achiumba uye zvakapoteredza chinhu kana apo pakutanga nekristaro usanganidzo yave ichiputswa panze (kunaka crystals dzichitaridzika vakareruka kupfuura hondo yavo pasi darkfield jekeso)

Negative usanganidzo

akaipa usanganidzo kungava gasi kana mvura izere kana ane diki hwakasimba usanganidzo (ona zvakare kunaka sekristaro)

Negative kuverenga

kana ibwe mumuedzo pamusoro refractometer ane R.1 pamusoro siyana chiridzwa, hapana mumvuri unopinza kuchaonekwa (kunze kuti ari kuonana mvura)

Non-crystalline

zvicherwa nezvimwe zvinhu vanonzi vasiri crystalline kana amorphous (chaizvoizvo, isina chimiro) vakati Jack yakarongeka internai mabhomba marongerwo uye geometrically dzose yokunze chitarisiko (semuenzaniso, ari chicherwa zvinhu, hiakindi uye girazi, uyewo makemikari zvinhu)

Non-chena chiedza

non-chena chiedza (kureva, yechitema) chinorondedzerwa tichitarisa yayo Hue (kureva, ruvara yawo pre-nyanya wavelength), saturation (kudzika kana simba hune ruvara) uye matauriro (mumvuri-chiedza nerima)

Normal

muna optics ail dzinoita ndivo nechiyero kubva kuipa, yokufungidzira mutsetse wakavhomorwa kurudyi dzinoita (90 pokuti Ray anorova nomumativi kwete pachiso pachayo

Optic akabatana

imwe kutungamirirwa chete refraction mukati ane kudaro nemhosva mbiri refractive nekristaro anozivikanwa somunhu optic akabatana

Optic mutambi

ona optic hunhu

Optic nhamba bhora

girazi rinosvika yakagadzirirwa pfupi shamhu iyo anoita somunhu condensing izvo kubatsira kutsunga chipingaidzo avaiita kuonekwa pamwe ane optic akabatana mune anisotropic zvinhu

Optic muzvarirwo

optic nehunhu chicherwa: zvicherwa rakakamurwa uniaxial, biaxial uye isotropic (optic hunhu). Uniaxial uye biaxial zvicherwa mamwe dziya kupinda avo vari optically zvakanaka uye avo vari optically kunaka (optic chiratidzo)

Optic chiratidzo

ona optic hunhu

Optical arambe achirema

Optical arambe achirema chinhu chisinganzwisisiki pfuma iyo demonstates pachayo iri kuderera nechiedza. (Ona zvakare refraction)

Organic zvinogadzirwa

makemikari zvinogadzirwa ndivo zvinhu avo zvinoberekwa basa zvipenyu

KuMabvazuva (pakati parera)

ari Iridescent pamusoro Sheen pamusoro chiwanikwa parera uye mai-of-neparera. It kunokonzerwa kukanganiswa chiedza panguva matete mafirimu (the matete ari nacreous rukoko) uye diffraction kubva yakaisvonaka micheto kwamahwendefa

Oriental maparera

Kushandiswa ichi izwi iri kungopfeka kutsanangura dzinongoitika maparera anowanikwa sait mvura mollusks kwePersian Gulf. Zvisinei, yave iri mamwemazwi wezvokutengeserana netsika kukirasi ail saltwater zvakasikwa maparera sezvo Oriental

okuonekana

okuonekana ndiwo breakage kuti kunoitika pamwe ndege nesimba, pane pamwe ndege noku nekristaro zviso, kana zvichibvira

sekiristaro paanoputsikirwa, sapamazuva cleavage (zvinonzi aizivikanwawo cleavage venhema)

Pearl zviyo

parera zviyo ndiyo mureza Unit nokuda parera yairema 1 zviyo = 0.25 carat (1 CT = 4grains)

maparera

maparera vari dzinongoitika idzodzo secreted netsaona uye pasina rubatsiro upi sangano ravanhu, mukati menyika mollusks. Ivo inoumbwa ane makemikari fuma (a scleroprotein ainzi conchiolin) uye calcium carbonate (kazhinji muchimiro aragonite) yakarongwa concentric matema kumudzivo zvacho kazhinji nacreous

Pearly

ona kubwinya

Pegmatites

igneous dombo vakasindimara pfuma kazhinji ine zvisingawanzoitiki zvicherwa, kusanganisira guru crystals pamusoro matombo anokosha (semuenzaniso, bheriri, chrysoberyl, feldspar, Goldstone, spessartite Garnet)

Phosphorescence

phosphorescence ari kushanda kunonoka fluorescence (kureva, chinhu afterglow). Zvinonzi vari mberi anobuda chiedza chinooneka pashure kunobva kusimbisa nemwaranzi kwapera

Photoluminescence

photoluminescence ari mupurazi izwi nokuda fluorescence uye phosphorescence. Ndiyo kushanda huna nevamwe zvinhu kubereka chiedza chinooneka pamusoro kuitwa ichingotaurwa pfupi wavelength nemwaranzi (semuenzaniso, remagetsi radiations ari anooneka (zvitema), ultraviolet uye X-ray chikamu chakarondedzera)

Pinpoints

inoramba duku sezvo inclusions. Kana izvi varipo vazhinji vanogona kunzi segore uye pachena pamusoro ibwe kungakanganiswa

Placer deposits

placer deposits ine pose kuwanda zvinokosha zvicherwa pamatunhu chaicho giravhiti (uye mukurumari) izvo inoumbwa weathering nezvomubereki dombo uye, kazhinji, vakabva vave yaitakurwa parukova kana chinozunguzirwa chiito

Ndege pamusoro symmetry

mumwe zvezvi- symmetry; ndege pakati symmetry chinhu zvokufungidzirwa ndege iyo anokamura muviri migove miviri kuitira kuti chikamu chimwe nechimwe ndiko kunooneka (girazi) mufananidzo mumwe chikamu (kureva, chikamu chimwe nechimwe chiri chaiyo inverse ishamwari romumwe)

mapurasitiki

Kazhinji izwi wandei makemikari murume-akaita zvinhu (kazhinji nebwe inobva polymer) izvo zvinogona extruded kana kuumbwa kupisa uye / kana kumanikidzwa

Play ruvara

rokuti kutamba ruvara inorondedzera nyaya dzinotevedzana mavara kuona kana chiedza zvinoratidzwa kubva matete mafirimu kana kubva kuchisazitasingwi yekamuri-kufanana maumbirwo anokosha hiakindi. Zvinonzi zvinoberekwa diffraction (paakamedura vakakwira chiedza chena mariri chinoumba mavara sezvo chiedza ichipfuura duku aperture) inova swa chimiro kukanganiswa wechiedza

Pleochroism

pleochroism (chaizvoizvo, vakawanda yechitema) ndiro shoko rinoshandiswa kurondedzera achitaura akasiyana mavara izvo zvinogona kuonekwa mamwe mabwe chitsvuku makatsemura chiedza (kureva, vari nemhosva mbiri refracting) nokuda kwavo womukati nekristaro mamiriro. Hunosanganisira dichroism (vaviri mavara) uye trichroism (matatu mavara)

Polariscope

ari polariscope ndiwo mudziyo zvinosanganisira vezvikwata zviviri kugadzirwa ndege inobudisa chiedza akaronga ane kutenderera padanho pakati pavo. Parachuti miedzo chete here kana kuti kwete zvinhu zviri singly kana nemhosva mbiri refractive

Polariscope Maitiro

singly refractive-zvinhu anoramba rima yose ari 360 ° jana. Kana mashoko acho ari pasi internai kugozha zvinogona kuratidza anomalous (venhema) refraction kaviri (ADR), kazhinji muchimiro Wavy zvisungo kana kutadza makwapa akasvibirika. Double refractive-matombo rakacherwa kubva chete sekristaro vane zvinzvimbo mana chiedza uye zvina nzvimbo kwasviba. Crystalline aggregates kana doro zvaisanganisira DR zvinhu kuonekwe ail chiedza kumarudzi ane 360 ° jana. Chipingaidzo mufananidzo-kuna DR zvinhu, kana mamiriro ezvinhu dzakarurama uye kukanganiswa nhamba rinozivikanwa, zvingadarowo kuziva kana ibwe iri uniaxial kana biaxial. (Optic chiratidzo-kamwe takati tawana chipingaidzo nhamba zviri ipapo zvinogoneka kuziva kana ibwe iri yakanaka kana akaipa uchibatsirwa

chishongedzo mahwendefa akapa zvikuru kuti chinangwa)

Polycrystalline

zvicherwa zviri aggregates pamusoro crystals duku dziri haichazonzi polycrystalline. Izvi crystals duku inogona kudzidzwa vachishandisa magnification, uye dzimwe nguva parutivi ziso oga (semuenzaniso, anenge ail jadeite nejedhi)

Polysynthetic mapatya

ona lammelar mapatya

Potch (chisakachena hiakindi)

Gwara zvinhu kushayikwa kutamba ruvara, inoumbwa silica mabhora ose dzisakarurama saizi pakudaro kukonzera chiedza kuti vapararire pane diffracted

Protogenetic inclusions

pre-yaivapo inclusions:. avo vakanga varipo hondo nekristaro asati akatanga kuumba uye vakanga takabatikana 'akagadzirira akaita' munzvimbo okupedzisira (semuenzaniso, inoramba yakasimba uye crystals duku Ivo vanowanzoyemura irregularly ukatakata pose uye havawanzobudiswa chokuita hondo Crystal mamiriro

Pseudomorph

mumwe pseudomorph (chimiro kwenhema) ndiye chicherwa zvinotora chimiro (chimiro) imwe chicherwa (kana makemikari fuma) nokuda kupisa uye / kana kumanikidzwa kana makemikari muitiro, semuenzaniso, ingwe ziso (Goldstone yaitsiva crocidolite, ane asbestos chicherwa); huni agati (a Goldstone yokutsiva huni)

chadzera

kufungisisa ndiyo kudzoka kuburikidza pose (kana internai kana kwokunze) dzimwe chiedza inowira pasi kuti pemvura. Onawo Mitemo vandine kuti

Refraction

refraction ndiyo kuchinja divi umo chiedza anofamba paanopfuura kubva imwe nhau mumwe akasiyana Optical arambe achirema (kunze apo achirova vanhuwo pemvura nhau mbiri 90 °). Sezvo chiedza rinopfuura kubva vashoma kuti denser svikiro (semuenzaniso, kubva mhepo kuva ibwe) zviri wakakombama kurutivi dzose, Ukuwo parinopfuura kubva denser kuti vashoma svikiro zvinonzi hwakakungwa kure chakaipa. Optical arambe achirema chinhu chisinganzwisisiki pfuma iyo kunoratidza pachayo iri kuderera nechiedza. Onawo Mitemo vandine kuti

Refractive indekisi (VT)

ari VT uri nyore reshiyo kuenzanisa kumhanya chiedza mumhepo nokumhanya chiedza pamamiriro svikiro. Mureza kushandiswa kuyera refractive indekisi iri mhepo (rinonyatsotevedzera ane Vacuum); saka anul mhepo iri kuonekwa 1.00

Regional metamorphic

ari recrystallization pamusoro chicherwa zviri pre-yaivapo nematombo yakawedzera tembiricha (700 ° -2000 ° C) uye aomerwa

hama arambe achirema

Ona chaiwo giravhiti (SG)

Residual wavelengths

residual wavelengths ndivo wavelengths navasina yokuita zvinoitwa zvinhu izvo zvinobatana kuti atipe perc-eived Ruvara chinhu

anotsvedzerera anobuda pamiti nemakwenzi

Ona kubwinya

ibwe

nedombo chinosanganisira chicherwa inoramba izvo akura kana kuti cemented pamwe nemakemikari maitiro kana uchinge waakaita pamwe kupisa kana kumanikidzwa

Saturation

rinoreva unhu kana kusimba ruvara zvakaonekwa brilliancy kupenya yakajeka matombo faceted

Schiller

Ona Sheen

Scintillation

kwemvura; kupa kubva pfupi, inopenya kupenya chiedza

Sectile

sectile zvinoreva zvinhu kusanganisa kuitwa akasvuura nokuda banga ane mvere vakatongoparadzwa

Sedimentary matombo

avo akaumba nokuda Kunovaka zvinhu (sediments) iro rakabva mumuviri uye zvemakemikari nokuputsika pre-huripo matombo ari panyika

Seed maparera

maparera vashomashoma (isingasviki v. zviyo / approx. 2mm) vari sezvingatarisirwa achiumbwa munyika nyoro dzomuviri womunhu mollusk somugumisiro nechisimba sejecha, vakasununguka mazai akayangarara, utachiona hwacho kana zvimwe miviri dzavatorwa. Mbeu maparera kazhinji kwemashifiti uye sandara, asi kana zvisingawanzoitiki kumativi vanowanikwa, vari vakaparadzaniswa dzokushandisa zvishongo. Onawo Keshi maparera

kusarudza Absorção de Água

Absorção de Água zvokusarudza chiedza ndicho kudzvinyirira kana Absorção de Água zvimwe wavelengths kubva chiedza kupfuura kuburikidza chinhu kana akaratidza kure ayo nechepamusoro. Ruvara zvinhu kunobva akasara (residual) wavelengths kuti dzisvike ziso

Sheen (kana Schiller)

Sheen ari shimmering kana diffuse (akatambanudzira) kufungisisa zvazviri kunokonzerwa chiedza kuitwa kwakaratidza kubva inclusions kana STRUCTURAL zvinhu mukati ibwe. Izwi zvinosanganisira chatoyancy, asterism, adularescence, aventurescence, opalescence, iridescence (labrodrescence uye kutamba ruvara mune hiakindi)

Silk (usanganidzo)

akatevedzana yakanaka yakafanana netsono (kakawanda rutile)

Single refractive

uyewo kunzi isotropic. zvicherwa izvo ichishandisa chete Optical zvivako munzvimbo ail Mirayiridzo (semuenzaniso, matombo cubic ezvinhu uye amorphous zvinhu)

Mitemo vandine kunoita refraction

kana chiedza ranzi rinopfuura kubva imwe unosvikirwa chimwe kune chaicho reshiyo pakati Sine pakati rekona pakati kuitika uye Sine ari pakona rimwe refraction. Nyaya Ray, refracted Ray uye kwagara (achitandadza kuitika) vari ail mune imwe ndege. The Kugara reshiyo pakati pakona pamusoro kuitika uye refraction chero vaviri vezvenhau Optical vachionana chainzi kubudikidza vandine ari refractive indekisi (VT)

South Sea maparera

hofori cultured maparera, cultured nesirivha-lipped parera oysters ane dhayamita pamusoro 12 kana kunyange 16mm. Izvi maparera guru chena vakarumbidzwa zita South Gungwa nokuti vakanga pakutanga neve vokuJapan Microne-vaSia uye Indonesia. Nhasi maparera aya kazhinji kugadzirwa muAustralia uye Burma, pamwe Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, uye Thailand sezvo matsime kudukupiswa. To zuva hakuna kumbovapo anobudirira chakagadzirwa akapfira mate muunganidzwa sirivha-lipped parera oysters, izvo zvinoreva kuti nerubatsiro mai oysters ishoma uye mitengo zvinoenderana yakakwirira

Dzakananga giravhiti (SG)

uye SG kana hama arambe achirema mumwe zvinhu ndiyo reshiyo pakati uremu fuma uye kurema ane vhoriyamu zvakayenzana mvura yakachena ari (water kunonyanyisa arambe achirema) 4 ° C uye panguva mureza mumhepo kumanikidzwa. SG wakabatana makemikari anoumba mashoko uyewo Inter mabhomba chokuedza (chaizvoizvo naro, hunotifambira kwete chete nokuda mabhomba kurema siyana zvinoriumba okunze asiwo mapiro maatomu vanoiswa pamwechete)

Spectroscope

chiridzwa iyo wakapatsanura kachiedza chiedza chawo constituent wavelengths kana chakarondedzera mavara achishandisa prism kana diffraction nesefa. The spectroscope unobvumidza munhu kuona izvo chaizvo zvikamu (mitsetse kana zvisungo) kana nzvimbo (wakafara Absorção de Água) chiedza chena zviri kunyura nokuda gemstone kuburikidza muchiaparadzira kana kuparadzira kunze residual wavelengths zvatakangopiwa chakasvitswa kana akaratidza kubva ibwe mumuedzo (kwete ail mabwe anoratidza chakarondedzera kwete ail spectrums kuona vane chirwere asi Absorção de Água zvisungo zvingaratidza coloring mumiriri kana kuvapo kwezvimwe zvinhu)

Splintery

ona kutsemuka

Symmetry

symmetry zvinoreva Nguva kana pakuenzanisa Maumbirwe chiwanikwa zvose chiso-up chinzvimbo uye Profile

Syngenetic inclusions

akararama inclusions rinoumbwa zvinhu zvakanga wataurwa iyoyo sezvo hondo crystai (semuenzaniso, chicherwa zvinhu zvakaoma, mvura mukati in uye achiporesa makatsemuka; zonal zvisungo; mura inclusions. zvisaririra kukura akadai ruvara zoning uye mapatya inotungamirwa Pane kakawanda chinhu akarayira intergrowth pakati syngenetic inclusions uye nehondo nekristaro kuitira kuti vaviri kuti uchabereka STRUCTURAL ukama mitemo crystallographic

chakaita zvokugadzirwa matombo anokosha

munhu chakaita zvokugadzirwa chigadzirwa ane chete makemikari anoumba, mabhomba marongerwo uye muviri nzvimbo sezvo wayo dzinongoitika ishamwari (semuenzaniso, chakaita zvokugadzirwa neemaradhi, chakaita zvokugadzirwa corundum, etc.)

kusimba

kusimba kana kuoma ndiyo nemishonga ane chiwanikwa kuti kutyora kana fracturing. Zvinonzi chokuita zvicherwa kwaniso yekubata ukapisa murwi pasina nokuvhiringidzirwa ari internai mamiriro. Terms akasangana panyaya iyi anosanganisira pfava, sectile, nyore kufurirwa, kuchinja uye elastic

matete mafirimu

kuonekwa pasi akaratidza chiedza izvi mafirimu dzakaonda vane Iridescent nechitarisiko zvakafanana nhete rukoko mafuta pamusoro mvura kana siyana pemvura ane sipo sefuro

Three danho usanganidzo

imwe mvura yakazara mhango ine sefuro uye sekristaro

izwi

mataurire zvinoreva hama nenyama kana rima vachinzwisisa (kana munhu Hue kana chichena kuti vatema)

Total zvemukati chadzera

vanosvika womukati Kufungisisa kunoitika apo munhu, ukurire chiedza kupfuura kubva denser kuti vashoma svikiro panguva necheparutivi kupfuura dzinonetsa angled adzorerwa kuna denser svikiro apo anoteerera mitemo Kufungisisa

kusimba

ona kusimba

kuchinja zvinhu

zita rinoshandisirwa zvimwe zvinhu esimbi iyo nokuda mabhomba kwavo mamiriro, maturo Absorção de Água zvokusarudza chiedza muna idiochromatic uye allochromatic namabwe. Ivo Chrome, cobalt, mhangura, vanadium, manganese, simbi, nickel uye titanium

fambisa

zvakaitika (semuenzaniso, chiedza) kubva imwe unosvikirwa kuno; kuti atume (semuenzaniso, chiratidzo) kana kutumira mberi (e..g., kubva mumwe munhu)

Transparency

norusununguko nako akapfuura chiedza kana kuburikidza ibwe. Dzakasiyana inosiyana pachena vanopiwa se: yakajeka (TP) -zita läpinäkyvä chinhu anoratidza uye absorbs shoma chiedza chakwira pamusoro payo, asi anobvumira vakawanda kupfuura. Chinhu kunoonekwa kuburikidza ibwe rinowanika zvakajeka uye zvakasiyana. Sub-njenjemera (S-TP) -zita yakawanda chiedza iri kuburikidza pabwe, asi chete pepa rehurukuro ane chinhu mhiri pabwe hazvigoni kusiyaniswa. Sub-translucent (S-TL) -only zvikuru shoma chiedza inogona ichipfuura chiwanikwa panguva matete kumicheto. Opaque (0) -ail chiedza iyo anowira pana chinhu opaque chinhu ari kana akaratidza kana kunyura. No chiedza ichipfuura acho, kunyange panguva matete kumicheto.

Treacle usanganidzo

mukono-wave kana roiled chaizvoizvo-wisps uye swirls mavara

Twin njenjere

munhu mapatya sekristaro ari sekristaro iro rinoumbwa nebhande maviri chete sekristaro kana vaviri kana kupfuura crystals zvakafanana kwemarudzi vane zvakananga crystallographic ukama kune mumwe nomumwe uye vakakurira pamwe chete symmetrical nenzira (ona kuonana mapatya uye interpenetrant mapatya)

Two danho usanganidzo

imwe mvura yakazara mhango ine sefuro kana sekristaro

Ultraviolet (UV)

ultraviolet zvinoreva zvinopfuura Violet. dungwerungwe iyi nemwaranzi chinotanga wavelengths kuti mapfupi pane 400nm pakati Violet chiedza

Uniaxial mabwe

vari hexagonal, trigonal uye tetragonal nekristaro nehurongwa uriko optic akabatana (kutungamirirwa chete refraction): zvicherwa kuva izvi nehurongwa vanozivikanwa se uniaxial (mu uniaxial mabwe optic akabatana zvinofambirana chikuru kutwasuka 'c' akabatana)

Unit sero

iyo chikwata yesero nekristaro mamiriro riri duku chikamu sekristaro iyo ichiri ane maitiro zvivako zviri sekristaro iri haichazonzi chinhu chimwe chitokisi. Tsika umo chikwata masero vari ukapisa murwi naamai hunhu anosarudza mashoko kwokunze pakuonekwa sekristaro

vheiri usanganidzo

ona munhenga usanganidzo

zvinooneka chiedza

chiedza chinoonekwa inzira inobwinya simba izvo kunoita kuti tibvunze kuti kutekenyedzwa nokuona. Chero wavelength pamusoro remagetsi mwaranzi kuti inenge pakati 400nm uye 700nm kunoonekwa yevanhu ziso sechiedza

Vitreous

ona kubwinya

Wavelength

mumwe wavelength rinorondedzerwa so kure pakati maviri anotevedzana nenhongonya iyoyo chinozunguzirwa

Waxy

ona kubwinya

White chiedza

chiedza chena (yakavhenganiswa chiedza) rinoumbwa ane musanganiswa anenge zvakayenzana ose mavara kana wavelengths anoumba rinooneka chakarondedzera (mutsvuku, orenji, yero, mutema, nezvakarukwa zvitema, Violet). Ruvara chiedza kunosiyana-siyana pamwe zvinoenderana pamusoro wavelength. Red mafungu vane wakarebesa wavelengths (700 + nm) uye ichi kunodzima kuburikidza chakarondedzera kuti Violet wavelengths, vane pfupi (400nm-anenge 1 / 4 kureba tsvuku mwaranzi)

hwindo

läpinäkyvä nzvimbo yakaderera ruvara kuchinyanya kunokonzerwa chiedza leakage anobvumira mabviro shure dombo kuti kuonekwa (verenga-kuburikidza kushanda)

Zircon denderedzwa rechiedza

ona denderedzwa rechiedza usanganidzo

Zonal striae

ona ruvara zvisungo

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